Everything About Short Term Memory & Long Term Memory

Short Term Memory & Long Term Memory

Short Term Memory & Long Term Memory

Memory is the most astonishing phenomenon in the world. It is the process by which information is stored, retrieved, and encoded. Encoding lets information that is from the outer world to arrive at our senses in the forms of physical and chemical stimuli. Memory is further classified into long-term memory and short-term memory.

Long-Term Memory

Long-term memory, as the name implies, is the memory that is kept stored in our minds for a longer duration of time. It also differs both functionally and structurally from short-term memory or working memory.

Hypothetically, the ability of long-term memory could be limitless, the chief restraint on reminders being convenience rather than accessibility. The supposed encoding modes are usually pictorial or semantic, visual, and also acoustic.

Types of Long-Term Memory

There are many diverse types of long-term memory. These memories are not produced and stored in a solitary part of the brain; rather the process of formation and storage of long-term memories is expanded throughout the different brain regions. The two chief subdivisions of long-term memories are:

  • Explicit memory
  • Implicit memory
Short Term Memory & Long Term Memory

Explicit memory is when you intentionally remember, for instance, an important event of your life or a scrupulous reality.

Implicit memory is what you carry without thinking about it, such as driving a car or riding a cycle means the skill you have once learned and you keep in mind. Now you do it without cognizant thought.

Long-term memory is not stationary either.  It is not possible to imprint memory and depart it as if unaffected. Instead, you frequently memorize the memory over time ~possibly by merging it with one more memory or including what others inform you regarding the memory. Consequently, your memories are not firmly constant and are not always dependable.

Long-term memory requires changes in the neurons of the brain to be stored for a longer duration of time. Whenever we learn something, neural networks i.e. the neuronal circuits in the brain are formed, modified, or strengthened. These neural circuits communicate with one another via special junctions known as synapses. With frequent use, the competence of these synapse connections boosts, helping the nerve impulses passage to involve the auditory cortex, visual cortex, and also other regions of the cortex. In this way, a person can easily recall his memory.

Short-Term Memory

Short-term memory possesses 3 main aspects:

  • Memory for a limited duration of time
  • A memory having limited capacity
  • The encoding is mainly acoustic but can translate visual information into sounds

It is the capacity of retaining a small amount of information within the brain, to be available easily for a shorter duration of time.

Memory is stored on a short-term basis by utilizing transmitter depletion. Any trigger can lead to the activation of a spatial type of activity across neurons within our brain region. With the discharge from the neurons, the neurotransmitters in their store are exhausted. This represents a storage of memory for a shorter time. This example of exhaustion is iconic, symbolizes incentive information, and works as a memory trace.

Short-term memory can be converted into long-term memory by rehearsing again and then. In this way, it will be retained in mind for a longer time.

memory problems

10 Tips To Improve Your Memory

The study of organic memory disorders has led researchers to identify brain structures that appear to mediate short-term and long-term memory. Two of the key parts of the limbic system, the hippocampus and the amygdala embedded under the temporal lobes are essential in receiving new information and storing it. You may find that some people remember things easily while some find it difficult. Here we have found the following techniques through which you can facilitate your memory and learning of new information.

Feedback of Results

Learning enhances most effectively when you receive feedback on results as it allows you to check and see if you are memorizing things. In this way, feedback can also aid you to recognize material that needs to work out more.

Focus and attention

A setting that increases your focus and attention while studying makes sure minimal distraction will turn your concentration to the memory job at hand.


This means learning many times can make you remember for a longer time. If you are going to learn something, you also need to retrieve or rehearse it. When you are reading your book, you must stop many times and try to memorize what you have just read. You can do this by summarizing.


If you are trying to learn lots of words, organize them in such a way that may make sense and you learn them well. For instant to remember the words west, woman, blue, summer, man east, orange, and winter, organize them as follow: west, east, woman, man, blue orange, summer, and winter. Thus, by making up stories, you can remember them easily.

Use of Mnemonics

It is a memory aid of any kind. Some individuals representing their extraordinary accomplishments with their memory and learning are taking benefit of the use of mnemonics. These methods rely on the associations or links to be remembered material in an organized and systemic way.

Attach Feelings and Emotions

Attach feelings, sentiments, or hook up with an occasion using mental images or visual imagery to improve retention. One method is to simply visualize an unusual scene that comprises a variety of elements you desire to keep in mind. We barely ever fail to remember what is emotionally noteworthy in our lives.

Serial Position

Whenever you like to study something, be conscious of the serial position outcome. This is the propensity to formulate most mistakes in remembering the middle of a list.

Spaced Practice

It is usually superior to massed performance. By enhancing focus, three 30 minutes study sessions can bring more learning than one hour of nonstop study.

A Good Sleep

All students are casual about their sleeping periods, especially during periods of exams. They are unaware that sleeping after studies is useful and decreases the interferences. Likewise, breaks and leisure time in a timetable are as significant as the study period. Staying awake the entire night before your exam is after all not good practice to do.


Reviewing soon before a test is useful, though one should keep away from the inclination to learn new information at that point. This review should not be more than an hour or so.

food memory blueberries

Foods Good For Memory

This is a fact that various types of foods can help in boosting your memory.  Many foods are enriched with certain important chemicals such as phytochemicals or anthocyanins that have proven health benefits for our brains. Here are some foods that may help you in improving and boost your memory.

Lean Beef

It is found to help enhance your memory. Incorporate it into your diet in moderate quantity and you will find improvement in your memory function. Lean beef helps in boosting memory because of the presence of iron content in it. Those people who eat only chicken should also include lean beef in their diet as iron deficiency has been found to have a big impact on the function of the brain and impair learning abilities as well.


Eggplant is a big source of anthocyanin. It also encloses nasunin, which is an antioxidant that guards the lipids present in brain cell membranes.


Almost all kinds of berries are healthy for our body, but blueberries are particularly memory-boosting fruit and these are also considered memory powerhouses. They are regarded as memory food in fact because they have a phytochemical that is particularly essential in reversing the age-linked decline of memory while keeping a positive effect on spatial functioning memory. Over and above, blueberries are low in the glycemic index as well thus making them a fine fruit option if you are attempting to manage your blood glucose level.


Apples enclose high storage of quercetin, which is an antioxidant that has been found to guard against Alzheimer’s disease. Though it is also present in the apple’s pulp a high level of quercetin is present in its skin. Red-colored apples also possess anthocyanin in their skins.

Fish or Fish Oil

Due to the presence of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or omega-3 fatty acids in fish and fish oil, these are considered best for brain health. DHA has known functions for the brain, as it is the part of the cerebral cortex. It is found that low levels of DHA have been associated with a high risk for memory loss and Alzheimer’s disease. Fish also possesses iodine, which is established to perk up mental lucidity.


Blackcurrants are good for the brain and memory as they consist of vitamin C which is known to enhance mental agility. Blackcurrants are also considered the best sources of vitamin C.

Pumpkin seeds

Pumpkin seeds consist of zinc, which is important for improving memory as well as thinking skills.


Research printed in the American Journal of Epidemiology proposes that eating the required level of vitamin E may help to stop poor memory. Nuts are found to be one of the great sources of vitamin E together with eggs, leafy green vegetables, brown rice, whole grains, and seeds.

Olive Oil

Extra-virgin olive oil comprises oleocanthal which is found to protect the brain from the toxic proteins present in the brain. In this way, it protects the nerves of the brain from damage and thus improves memory.

The key to maintaining your mind sharp is maintaining your body healthy. You can do it by keeping your nutritional choices simple yet healthy.


Brain Supplements For Memory

You think your memory problems are making the learning of poems torture, and a week of vacation is enough to erase all learned before. Despairing! But is it a memory problem? Before you scold your child, try to find out what is going on in his head.

True memory problems

There are disorders of brain development that result in memory problems and learning difficulties, specific or general. Their origin may be genetic: it could be a bad construction or organization of some parts of the brain.

It can be also about a stroke during fetal development or postnatal. Certain difficulties are encountered also a loss of memory for children with epilepsy. This kind of disorder can be detected and treated in the early stages with memory supplements.

But there are other types of memory or learning difficulties without any other anomaly detection. The child has normal development but noted that fails, for example, learning to read, while being good at calculations or math.

Other children have great difficulty in learning arithmetic operations, while still being able to reason properly, etc.

What to do in this case?

It serves nothing to overwhelm the child, argue it or scold him, nor to create a feeling of inferiority and tell him he is not smart. It’s wrong. There are, for example, dyslexics who became great scientists and great artists. A child may fail to save in some areas and have excellent storage capacity in others. Also, you may use a series of memory supplements like lecithin-based extracts that usually help.

For learning disorders that reveal memory problems, whether general or particular, one must not hesitate to consult a specialist.

If you suspect a dyslexic, you should contact a speech therapist. If no symptoms will indicate the nature of difficulties and problems take serious proportions, Neuropediatrics sees a service that will make the necessary investigations to diagnose and try to find remedies.

The memory of something that is cultivated

In all children, storage capacities are related to mechanisms in the brain and the various neural networks. But, like all potential capabilities, they can be trained and improved. It’s up to you!

But do not tell “has a poor memory! Help him and practice. At any age, there are real opportunities for progress. But especially when we are young!

It is possible to train us, to learn, to memorize. Is enough only to find the means to do it. We start by avoiding any price, everything could become a source of boredom.

You do not need anything else to alert the brain to the idlest and trace, in response, to forget any record total of more memory. Here are some “tricks” available from the earliest age, to help your child strengthen their storage potential. Buy memory supplements and alternate periods of learning with periods of rest.

The activity of neurons in the memory request is such that it is important to let them able to recover forces. For example, if the child learns a poetry evening is not surprising that he will remember better this morning, those are not memory problems.

If you have difficulty keeping things in memory, get used to depositing an effort to make a connection between memories. So, giving one end of memory often helps to remember the rest.


Amna Sheikh is a medical doctor with a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS), Bachelors in Economics and Statistics.  She is also a medical writer working as a freelancer for 10+ years and she is specialized in medical, health, and pharmaceutical writing, regulatory writing & clinical research. All her work is supported by a strong academic and professional experience.
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